Thursday, September 26, 2019

Open Topic Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Open Topic - Research Paper Example Do the benefits of transporting hazardous material by rail outweigh the costs and damage on the environment? The following study into quantitative and ecological risk analysis of the transportation of hazardous chemicals by train across the United States. The study employs findings and conclusions made by former literature conducted over the effects of transporting hazardous material by rail and the environment. The study also analyses geographic data surrounding rail systems in the United States involved with transporting hazardous contents. Ecological features of these surroundings build towards probabilistic approximations of exposure to various spill cases the history of America’s rail system. This risk analysis integrated approximated cleanup expenses that accrued, effect of dispute on the distribution of soil, underground water, the contributions of yearly traffic, the rates of accidents, and deployed safety measures. A number of factors influence the risk and scale of the criticality of the consequence of spilling hazardous material on the environment during transportation by rail. First, the difference in safety performance of the standard tank cabin layouts is a significant risk factor (Anand et al., 2006). The higher the difference in cabin miles among various hazardous materials, and the difference in yearly accident-induced spill rate. Second, in approximating the effect expenses, hazardous substances that dissolve less in water incur more soil and groundwater cleanup expenses due to longer remediation periods (Xie et al., 2012). Third, in approximating the evacuation expenses, hazardous material moved along routes with more populations incur more evacuation expenses. Lastly, scheduled delay expenses may range from 3 to 8% of the entire effects costs in contrast to from 76 to 88% of cleaning up hazardous substances spilled into the soil and groundwater (Spraggins, 2011). The

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